California has landed atop the “Judicial Hellholes” list again, according to the latest ranking of the “most unfair” civil litigation courts by the American Tort Reform Foundation (ATRF). Trailing not far behind California are Florida, New York City and St. Louis, Missouri. California was last at No. 1 in the 2015–2016 report, and also held the No. 1 title in the 2013–2014 and 2012–2013 reports.A recent study released by the U.S. Chamber Institute for Legal Reform highlights both the overall cost and inefficiencies of the tort system. The report states that the cost and compensation paid in the U.S. tort system totaled $429 billion in 2016, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. gross domestic product. According to the report, California is a perennial Judicial Hellhole because “California judges and legislators alike have a propensity to expand liability at almost every given opportunity.”